Linguistics

A Case Study on Learner Language

Written for an Applied Linguistics Master’s Course: Psycholinguistics

 


Introduction: Learner Background

     Presentation of Learners. Terrence is a 30-year-old male from Santiago, Chile. His first language is Spanish, and he has expressed an interest in learning French and Japanese. He has been living in Nottingham for approximately one year. He has also traveled extensively throughout Europe. Though he and his wife intend on moving back to Santiago after she finishes her coursework at Nottingham University, Terrence has expressed a preference for British culture over Chilean, noting in particular that the jobs are better in pay and the people are more “cosmopolitan” in nature (Appendix 1, Line 44).

     In Chile, he did not have much opportunity to speak English at home because none of his family speak the language. Additionally, though he formally studied English in elementary school and took a few basic English courses in university, he also did not have opportunity to speak English in the community. Because of his keen interest in film (See Appendix 1, Line 70), he was able to learn enough English to use in his everyday life where possible. His main purposes for learning English are for work and travel. His career in finance demands fluency in English to be able to work internationally. To progress in this field, he has continued to do more formal English study in Nottingham to take the CFA exam for an internationally recognized finance certification. (Appendix 1, Line 18). Also, because he and his wife enjoy traveling, he believes that learning English will help him communicate easily with others.

     Frank is a 29-year-old male from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia whose first language is Arabic. He has also expressed an interest in learning French. He is currently living in Nottingham with his sister while she studies physics at the University of Leftborough. He has been living in Nottingham for approximately eight months and hopes to continue studying in a university here after his sister returns to Riyadh. He is currently studying English to pass the IELTS exam, a requirement for foreign students to study in universities in England. He has also traveled extensively, but most of his travel seems only to have taken place in other Middle Eastern countries and cities within Saudi Arabia (Appendix 1, Lines 17-20). Like Terrence, he enjoys the lifestyle in Nottingham and hopes to find work in the city.

     In Saudi Arabia, Frank did not have much opportunity to use English at home or in his community. Though some of his family can speak English, he mostly uses Arabic to communicate with his family (Appendix 2, Lines 49-50). His experiences learning English in Riyadh were not positive. He often refers to the fact that his teachers were native Arabic speakers who mainly used Arabic in English classes. Even when moving to Nottingham, he faced initial problems with the teacher and students in his English course, noting that they often spoke in Arabic rather than English (Appendix 2, Lines 36). He has since changed to the English language school where Terrence also studies, where his experiences are more positive for him. Progressing in his career is the main motivating factor for him to learn English, though his interest in sports cars seems to be another, though smaller, factor for learning English as well (Appendix 2, Lines 42-46).

     Comparison of Learners. Terrence was more comfortable speaking in English than Frank despite the fact that they are both enrolled in intermediate level English classes. Terrence’s speech had less hesitation and the constructions he created involved less chunking which contributed to a better spoken fluency overall. He was also able to elaborate fully and extensively for most of the topics we discussed. Additionally, Terrence showed a quicker comprehension of the questions posed, whether they were simple or complex in nature. With that said, Terrence had some clear issues with certain phonological pronunciations. In particular, he displayed difficulty with the phoneme /ʃ/ when the sound was in the initial position of a word (e.g. Appendix 2, Line 44 in his pronunciation of the word, “chauvinist”). Though Green (2009) only illustrates the segmental sounds of Castilian Spanish in his paper, we can see on Table 10.1 that the postalveolar fricative, /ʃ/, is not present in the Spanish language, while the palatal affricate /tʃ/ is, which may be the reason why Terrence had this issue with this specific phoneme (Green, 2009, p. 202). However, it is important to note that this particular example could also be attributed to the orthographic construction of the word as much as the phonetic pronunciation of it.

     Though Frank’s spoken English was not as fluent, his main strength was that he was never demotivated when he couldn’t answer questions thoroughly. Though he struggled to elaborate on his thoughts for most topics, Frank showed a high resolve to persist in his use of English. He was, at the very least, able to communicate the foundational, basic information related to most of my questions. He didn’t hesitate to ask for clarification when I posed questions he was unsure of through verbal and nonverbal cues, and he generally displayed a positive attitude towards speaking English. His main weaknesses relate to his inability to phrase complete thoughts in English. He often chunked his ideas in smaller constructions that were sometimes incomplete grammatically.

     First Impressions. Because of the differences in spoken fluency between Terrence and Frank, I concluded that, though they were both enrolled in intermediate classes at the same school, it was clear that Terrence was perhaps more advanced within this level.  Despite this difference, it was interesting to note that their English exposure in their home countries was quite similar: both did some type of formal study in school and/or university prior to coming to Nottingham, but neither one used English much outside of these contexts in their home countries. They both also actively try to use English with the friendships they have made with people in the community. Terrence’s stronger spoken fluency despite their similar backgrounds in this regard may be due to several factors. First, though they both are motivated to improve in English for their careers, Terrence has further motivating factors to learn, particularly his interest in film. This difference in motivation parallels in some ways to Gardner and Lambert’s (1972) concept of integrative and instrumental motivation, where the former relates to one’s desire to be a member of the language group in some way and the latter relates to one’s desire to use language for a more practical purpose. With Terrence, we see a motivation to learn English to progress with his career (instrumental) and a motivation to learn English to connect to English films (integrative), both of which are equally significant to him. Frank, on the other hand, is more focused on the instrumental motivating factors for learning English.

     Age might also be a factor in this difference. Terrence is older than Frank by three years which could contribute to the level of experience he has compared to Frank. Adding to that, Terrence seems to have had more opportunities to use English in authentic contexts, mostly through his travels in Europe. Frank, on the other hand, though he has also traveled quite a lot, has often limited his travel to places where Arabic was still the dominant language for communication (i.e. Saudi Arabia, Egypt, U.A.E, etc.).

Visit 1: Background Interview

     Initial Thoughts on Learner Language. Though Terrence was more fluent in his spoken English than Frank, both still exhibited similar types of errors. They both had issues with pronoun dropping. However, in Terrence’s case, he only displayed issues with dropping the pronoun, “it,” in his constructions whereas Frank dropped nearly every type of pronoun in his constructions (e.g. Appendix 2, dropping “I” in Line 4; dropping “we” in Line 30; etc.). Additionally, both also had issues with accurately using plural and singular forms, with using the correct gender distinctions with pronouns, with using the correct preposition in prepositional phrases, with using gerund verb forms and with using negations. Both differed in some ways as well: Terrence’s only other clear issue was with making possessive pronoun distinctions with gender while Frank had additional issues with question construction. Despite being in the same English course, their varied levels of proficiency can be the result of a number of factors. One factor may be the difference in their instructional experiences with English. Terrence seems to have had more focused and consistent instruction in English which may have contributed to his quicker rate of acquisition in comparison to Frank (e.g. Bardovi-Harlig, 1995 and Ellis, 1990, as cited in Bardovi-Harlig, 1997). Additionally, factors related to their native languages may be helping and/or hindering each learner’s progression through developmental stages in different ways, or may be placing them on different pathways to acquisition, which may be the reason why one has progressed more quickly than the other (Ard & Homburg, 1983/1992, as cited in Gass & Selinker, 2008).

     Possible Native Language Influences on the L2. Terrence showed some issues with using infinitive forms. For example, in Line 28 (Appendix 1), Terrence says, “I love watch movies.” This construction could be due to the fact that Spanish does not necessitate the use of the particle, “to,” in constructions for infinitive verbs in the same way as English. Additionally, though he also could have used the gerund (i.e. “I love watching movies.”), he may not have done so because it is also not required in verb-verb constructions in Spanish (e.g. “Me encanta ver las películas,” roughly translates to “I love watch movies.”). Frank also had some issues with verb forms that may be due to native language influence. For example, in Line 2 (Appendix 2), when talking about his experiences learning and using English, he says, “Difficult if…I don’t learn English” instead of “It would have been difficult if…I hadn’t learned English.” The construction choices he makes in this example could be due to the fact that perfect tenses work differently in Arabic, as they are more ambiguous in nature than they are in English, can be used to talk about past, present and future events nearly at the same time and have more complex rules for conjugation than English (Shoebottom, 2011; Kaye, 2009; “The Main Differences,” 2012). Verbs in Arabic are also agglunative in nature, so it may have been difficult for Frank to know the appropriate form(s) to use in English at any given time (Shoebottom, 2011; Kaye, 2009; “The Main Differences,” 2012).

     Additionally, we see Terrence saying phrases like, “I love to hear the movies,” and “the English has helped me a lot,” where the added use of the definite article, “the,” is not needed in English constructions (Appendix 1, Lines 28 and 52). Again, native language influence could be at work here, as nouns more often need determiners in Spanish constructions (e.g. “Me encanta escuchar las películas.”). Adding to this, the differences in how English and Spanish do or do not make distinctions between the determiners “a,” and “an,” could have resulted in his construction, “it’s a easy way,” in Line 52 (Appendix 1). Though it has determiners similar to “a,” and “an,” (i.e. “un/una,” and “unos/unas”), Spanish does not make distinctions based on the initial phonological sound of a word following a determiner (i.e. a consonant, as with “a cat,” versus a vowel as with, “an apple”).

     Prepositional phrasing seemed, at times, to be influenced by Terrence’s native language. For example, in Line 28 (Appendix 1), when talking about English, he says, “You can speak in whole over the world.” In Spanish, the phrase he is attempting to construct here would be phrased as, “de todo del mundo,” where the prepositions, “de,” and “del,” seem to mirror the prepositions he used in the English construction. Terrence displayed other issues with prepositional phrases (e.g. Appendix 1, Line 35: “She’s in the University Park.”). In Spanish, the use of the preposition, “en,” which can roughly translate to “in,” or “at,” may be influencing his English constructions here.

    Negation was another type of learner error influenced by their native languages. Terrence used the phrase, “We invite…no-no Spanish speaker…” indicating a similarity in the construction of negation that Spanish would require. Negative indicators often precede the item taking the negation (e.g. the construction he makes in English would roughly translate to, “Invitamos a que no hablan espanol” where the negation, “no,” precedes the persons who “do not speak Spanish”). This use of negation, it is important to note, may also be an issue of learner language or developmental stage as it relates to negation in the L2.

     In Lines 70 and 79 (Appendix 1), Terrence says the phrases, “Here the professors makes,” and “We usually sits…” indicating issues with making the accurate Subject-Verb (henceforth, S-V) agreements related to plurality. Spanish would require that pluralization be evident in all lexical items in the construction (i.e. “Los profesores hacen…”) which could indicate why this error was made, as the verb, “make,” ostensibly seems to be singular in nature while “makes,” seems to fit this line of thinking more clearly. However, this particular error may also be due to Terrence’s developmental stage for verb forms as much as it may be due to his native language. Frank also displayed issues with the use of plural forms in his English constructions. Arabic has a more complex system for plural forms which is based on gender (Shoemaker, 2011), and so we see in Line 48 (Appendix 2), examples of his difficulty in creating constructions to talk about his brothers and sisters, “…four…my brothers all…of themgot married. And…three my sisterthey got marriedbrother and sister they lives with…my parents.”

     Finally, pronoun dropping was also an issue that occurred with both learners. For example, in Line 97 (Appendix 1), Terrence uses the phrase, “Was…was really fun,” which could be due to the fact that pronouns are commonly dropped from verbs, especially after subject(s) have already been clearly referenced in previous constructions. In this case, the pronoun, “it,” is not necessary (e.g. “It was really fun,” would be, “Fue muy divertido.”) since Spanish “…rarely needs subject pronouns to avoid syntactic ambiguity” (Green, 2009, p. 212). Again, Frank displayed some similar issues with pronoun dropping. However, his issues were more extensive than Terrence’s who only seemed to drop the pronoun, “it.” For example, in Line 4 (Appendix 2), he creates the construction, “…actually not good.” We see that Frank not only drops the needed pronoun, “it,” but he also drops the linking verb, “is,” which is also needed.  Dropping “it is” in this construction can be due to the fact that Arabic does not have a form for “to be” (Shoemaker, 2011).

     Learner Language Evidence Found. Though the aforementioned examples of the learner’s English constructions were in many ways connected to their native language, there were times when their uses of negation and S-V agreement (in present and past tenses) seemed to relate more to learner language than to native language influence. In addition to these forms, Frank and/or Terrence also displayed issues with creating comparative and conditional forms and with question formation.

     Frank’s use of negation, compared to aforementioned issues Terrence had in this area, is still in the early stages of development. In lines 50, 40 and 64 (Appendix 2), we see Frank constructing the negative forms, “…all of them not,” “My country no,” and “I did, uh, before, but I got, uh, not good mark.” With these examples alone we see that Frank seems to be working somewhere between Stages 1 and 2 of negation, where the negative elements, “no,” and “not,” are still preferred to negated verb forms, but they are appropriately placed in a position preceding the element taking the negation (Wode, 1978, and Schuman, 1979, as cited in Lightbrown & Spada, 2006).

     Again, with question formation, it is evident that Frank is more in the emergent stages. For example, in Lines 8 and 42 (Appendix 2), he creates questions as, “How we can…” and “You can…order this for me,” showing an inability to invert the auxiliary verb and subject. His utterances in these instances mirror Stage 2 development, where declarative word order with no fronting or inversion of the auxiliary verb occurs (Pienemann et al., 1988, as cited in Lightbrown & Spada, 2006).

     Both learners had issues with creating comparative and/or conditional forms. Terrence only displayed learner language related to comparative forms. For example, in Line 44 (Appendix 1), he says, “I think in Chile the-the people are more chauvinist than the, than in other, than in Nottingham.” In general, we see that Terrence has some concepts about this grammatical form correct: he knows that two components must be compared (“the people [in Chile]” and “[the people] in Nottingham”), and he understands that a comparative form is needed to connect the two components, but he has difficulty in completing the last portion of the construction (i.e. the correct comparative adjective, “chauvinistic” and the second component up for comparison, “[the people] in Nottingham”). Frank did not illustrate knowledge or use of comparative forms, but he did show issues with creating conditionals. In Line 10 (Appendix 2), he says, “…if I were work, I must, uh, go my work before one hour,” showing difficulties with using the correct verb forms in the construction. As with Frank’s use of negation and question formations, it seems that he is still in the emergent stages of creating conditional forms which may be due to the fact that he has not reached mastery levels for verb forms which would equip him to move on to more complex constructions like conditionals (e.g. Krashen’s (1977) progressive/past sequence and Meisel’s (1987) sequence for locating events in time, as cited in Lightbrown & Spada, 2006).

     Both Terrence and Frank show developmental errors related to S-V agreement. Several errors related to S-V agreement can be found in Terrence’s interview, which include utterances like: “I live in Chile for 32 years.” (Line 5); “I’m used to be a finance engineer.” (Line 18); and, “I’m interesting in Japanese…” (Line 55) to name a few (Appendix 1). Frank displays similar issues with S-V agreement in utterances like: “She is study…” and, “The teacher was Arabic and speak Arabic.” (Appendix 2, Lines 22 & 6). In both cases, we see that Terrence and Frank have issues with S-V agreement in distinguishing between singular-plural demands for simple and continuous tenses in present and past forms. This may be due to their continuing development in acquiring accurate past/present forms in the L2 (Krashen, 1977, as cited in Lightbrown & Spada, 2006; Dulay & Burt, 1974, as cited in Larsen-Freemen & Long, 1991; etc.).

     In addition to evidence illustrating their current stages of development, there was ample evidence of monitoring and learner chunks in Terrence’s and Frank’s first interview. They monitored through the use of silent pauses (e.g. Terrence, Appendix 1, Line 34, “It’seasier because with English you can speak in whole over world. Wholethe world.”), through mid-utterance corrections (e.g. Frank, Appendix 2, Line 57, ““…we went, uh, Lestera- Leftborough, but it’s boring”), through word experimentation (e.g. Frank, Appendix 2, Line 22, “Like, uh…secretaria. Secretare, uh…”) and through the use of verbal pauses (i.e. “um,” and “uh,”) which work as a way to fill the silence while they work out the next construction they want to make (See Appendices 1 & 2). Terrence adds a fifth type of monitoring that was not evident in Frank’s interview where he directly states his uncertainty with using a certain lexical item: “In some places I neighbors, uh, but only well…I don’t know the exactly word, but…mm, I think in Chile the-the people are more chauvinist…” (Appendix 1, Line 44). Both Terrence and Frank also demonstrated the use of learner chunks, most of which relate to talking about their move to Nottingham, their opinions on living in the city, their daily activities and/or hobbies, etc. Therefore, we see stock phrases such as, “I came here because…” (e.g. Terrence, Appendix 1, Line 13) and “…seven months ago, or eight months ago” (e.g. Frank, Appendix 2, Line 4) occurring frequently in their speech.

Visit 2: Data Elicitation from Controlled Task

     Description and Rationale for Elicitation Task. Because Terrence and Frank had similar issues with S-V agreement, particularly with the third person singular (he/she) and plural (they) in past and present tenses, I wanted to focus on their use of this morpho-syntactic feature in a Visit 2 writing activity. I used fill in the blank sentences and two short writing exercises to elicit their use of the third person singular/plural in both past and present tenses to see what types of errors occurred in making the appropriate S-V agreements. I included both singular and plural forms because I didn’t want to limit either learner in their ability to use them since each of these forms/tenses regularly came through in their initial interviews. Additionally, I felt a writing activity would elicit these forms more explicitly because it would provide more incentive to create full sentences for analysis and would allow them more time to think about their answers, so that avoidance would be less of an issue. I also thought that keeping the elicitation open to S-V agreement in general, rather than restricting it to one specific verb form, would allow them to display their learner language more organically.

     For the first part of the writing task, I had approximately 12 fill in the blank exercises (6 eliciting third person present and 6 eliciting third person past, varying in singular and plural forms) that the students read and filled in with the appropriate conjugation of the verb provided. This part of the writing activity was done as somewhat of a “warm-up” to the more open-ended writing tasks in Part 2. For the second part of the writing task, I had the learners engage in two short writing activities. The first activity called for them to create singular/plural third person sentences in the present tense about a friend of their choosing (“My friend always…”) and about their parents (“My parents never…”). The second activity aimed to elicit the singular/plural third person forms in the past tense. They watched a short video and described what happened in the story.

     Error Analysis (See Appendices 3 & 4 for more detail). It was interesting to note that despite Terrence’s stronger ability in spoken fluency, they both at times made very similar errors in their S-V agreement choices. For example, on Part 1 of the written assessment, they both chose to use the continuous tense for “swim” in the construction, “They often swimming in the lake by the school,” and for “play” in the construction, “The boys often playing video games together after school.” Additionally, they also made the same error in S-V agreement for a third person, singular, present tense form in Part 1, Question 11, using the verb, “visit,” instead of the correct verb form, “visits.” In Part 2 of the writing assessment, it was not as clear where their errors were similar as their writing took place in a less controlled manner (creating their own sentences vs. filling in the blank). The only similarity that was clearly evident was their overgeneralization for past tense forms (e.g. Frank’s use of the word, “cutted,” and Terrence’s use of the word, “woked,” in Part 2B). Some of the errors they made clearly relate to where they are developmentally (e.g. past tense marker, “-ed,” continuous tense marker, “-ing,” present tense marker, “-s,” etc.). Other errors may have to do with native language influence (e.g. Terrence’s use of the word, “shopped,” instead of “chopped” in Part 2B). Finally, some errors could simply be due to other factors unrelated to their interlanguage or native language, as “memory lapses, [and] physical states, such as tiredness,” could also result in error production (Corder, 1967, p. 166).

     Interlanguage Analysis. Ostensibly, it seems that Terrence made more errors in this elicitation activity, but that was mainly because he produced more language to be analyzed. With that said, I don’t think solely relying on the number of errors is a good measure of proficiency as Terrence technically made more errors than Frank but is clearly a more proficient writer/speaker in English. Adding to that, there are errors they could be producing which were not effectively elicited in this activity or which they specifically refrained from producing, particularly in Part 2A and 2B of the writing activity where their written production was less restricted (i.e. Gass & Selinker’s (2008) concept of avoidance). From this, we can see how solely focusing on errors produced may not definitively indicate developmental level.

     Their errors differed in some ways for various reasons. First, as alluded to previously, the difference in age, experience in using English in real-life contexts and motivation seem to have influenced their developmental levels. Second, native language influence may also be contributing to their differences in error production and language ability. Certain aspects of Frank’s L1 (such as differences in L1 and L2 markedness) may be contributing to his slower movement through various developmental stages for different morphemic items, resulting in his “delayed rule reorganization” of various linguistic forms (Larsen-Freeman & Long, 1991 and Zobl, 1982, as cited in Gass & Selinker, 2008).

     As previously mentioned, their error production was similar in their overgeneralized use of the singular, past tense marker, “-ed” and the present continuous marker, “-ing,” (see Appendices 3 & 4, Part 1, Questions 7 and 10). Kellerman’s U-Shaped behavior model may serve as a good explanation for why these overgeneralizations are made: both learners seem to be at a stage where they are experimenting with deviant forms, in this case with overgeneralized verb forms (e.g. Stage 2 in Kellerman, 1985, pp. 345-346). Additionally, Schmidt’s (1990, 2001) Noticing Hypothesis and/or the concept of salience (Gass & Selinker, 2008) may be at work here as the forms that were exemplified in the writing activity were explicitly illustrated and verbally alluded to by me but were not always followed (e.g. Parts 2A & 2B). Perhaps, the saliency of these forms and their ability to notice them in input are lacking both in their general English studies currently and in the writing activity I used to elicit these forms. Adding to this, though there were evident linguistic cues in Part 1 of the writing activity that marked the need for a present or past verb form, we see that both Frank and Terrence did not always notice the cues that would lead them to the correct use of the verb form for the appropriate S-V agreement construction.

     Comparison of Two Learners. Terrence created more constructions than Frank in the writing task, just as he did in the spoken task in the initial interview, indicating his stronger levels of fluency in English. However, with that said, if we simply divide the number of correct constructions they made by the total number produced, there is not much difference in their levels of written accuracy (64% for Terrence vs. 62% for Frank). Analyzing their accuracy in this way puts them more or less at equal levels of production despite Terrence’s higher level of sentence production and use of complex constructions. If we use the quantitative measure for Target Language Use, we see a somewhat larger difference between the two learners: (8.65 for Frank vs. 12.9 for Terrence), showing a more significant difference in their accurate productions. With that said, it was obvious they understood the relationship between subjects and verbs in S-V agreements; they were just not consistent in using the correct morpheme markers for them. The patterns they exhibited are more or less not surprising. I was surprised at times that they made similar errors despite the clear difference in overall proficiency between them, but with our knowledge of interlanguage and observable SLA phenomena, we can clearly account for why there were parallels between the two. I was also surprised to get a clearer indication of Frank’s developmental level through his writing rather than through his speaking, as written forms of language usually take more time to acquire than spoken forms. In Frank’s case, his writing proved to be a better indicator of where he is in his L2 development, while Terrence’s written forms were similar if not identical to his spoken forms overall.

Visit 3: Interaction and Scaffolding

     Description and Rationale for Elicitation Task. The Visit 1 activity was done solely through spoken conversation in English while the Visit 2 Activity was done through a written task to more explicitly elicit examples of their S-V constructions. Because of this, I wanted to create an activity for the third and final visit with Terrence and Frank that would involve both speaking and writing. Additionally, I wanted to have at least some evidence of their abilities in both speaking and writing at the individual level while assessing how well they attended to S-V forms collaboratively. To meet these constraints, I decided to use a dictogloss activity where Terrence and Frank could write and/or speak both collaboratively and individually. I also wanted to make sure that the written part of the activity was as collaborative in nature as possible, so that they could negotiate for meaning in spoken and written forms as they worked together to reconstruct the dictogloss text.

     The dictogloss activity was done in two parts. The learners listened as I read the dictogloss text aloud twice (See Appendix 5). During the first reading, the learners sat and listened to the story without performing any actions. I read the text the first time quite slowly, making sure to leave pauses between sentences and to pronounce each word carefully and precisely. This was done so that the learners would have more opportunity to notice the most significant aspects of the input for the second listening and for the second part of the activity (i.e. Schmidt, 1990, 2001). During the second reading, each of the learners were given a sheet of paper to write down any key words, phrases and/or sentences to help them reconstruct the text. Once the second reading was completed, the learners were given an unlimited amount of time to share their notes with one another and to collaboratively reconstruct the text as closely to the original text as possible. They were reminded that the reconstruction had to mirror the required tense of the original story (i.e. the past tense) for their rewrite.

     Findings and Analysis for Each Learner. For this visit, learner errors were examined from the notes they took while listening to the original text and from the dialogue that occurred between the two learners while they collaboratively worked to reconstruct it. During the notetaking part of the activity, Terrence produced fourteen constructions, seven of which contained S-V errors (See Appendix 10, Table 1). However, it was difficult to determine the possible cause(s) of each of the errors made in his notes. Terrence’s S-V agreement errors may have had to do with a combination of the context for writing (i.e. simultaneously taking notes and listening to a text for content) and his developmental stage. Most of the errors he made seemed to be related to the context for writing: because Terrence was required to write notes quickly while listening, there was more opportunity for him to make errors based on factors related to the physical and/or emotional state of the learner while notetaking (i.e. Corder, 1967). Having to write significant phrases and sentences without pause may cause stress, resulting in S-V agreement errors that are related more to the time constraints of the situation than to developmentally related issues. This same analysis can be applied to Frank. Though Frank wrote less than Terrence overall during the notetaking portion of the activity, many of his S-V errors still seemed to be due more to the context for writing and its time constraints than to any existing developmentally related issues.

     During the collaborative writing part of the activity, where their spoken interaction was the focus, Frank made fewer errors, though this was due more to the fact that he did not take much initiative to speak during the majority of the interaction. Terrence also made very few errors in regards to S-V agreement as well, but it seemed that many of the errors Terrence and Frank made in this particular part of the activity occurred because they were repeating an error orally that had already been written during notetaking (e.g. See Appendix 10, Table 1, Terrence says, “They plan…to stay the night,” mirroring his notes, See Appendix 6, Lines 5-6). Additionally, some of the errors from the written portion of the activity that resurfaced in the collaborative spoken interaction were corrected in the final product of their collaborative text rewrite, reaffirming that these errors were initially made due to time constraints. For example, the final construction of their collaborative written work reads, “…he stuck out the head and the polar bear went away…” (See Appendix 9) which contrasts particularly with Terrence’s initial notes on this part of the text where he writes, “…polar bear goes away…” and later corrects it while he and Frank shared their ideas on the key events in the story (See Appendix 6, Lines 16-17). Furthermore, the spoken errors they make during the collaborative writing task may also be due to the context of the activity. As Terrence and Frank transition in and out of sharing what they remember about the story and writing it down, they shift between tenses: while orally negotiating for meaning, they focus less on the tense of the story (i.e. the past tense), but while agreeing on final constructions, they pay more specific attention to the tense required for their final rewrite of the text (e.g. Appendix 8, Line 12, Terrence says, “Moved, I think it’s with “d.” Moved. In past,” to correct a written error Frank made with the verb, “move”).

     Again, as with the previous activities, Terrence seemed to have a lower accuracy rate in his production than Frank in his notetaking constructions (50% vs. 57%), but, as to be expected, he had a higher accuracy rate in his spoken utterances during the collaborative writing task. (It is important to note that the accuracy percentages from the collaborative writing task are based on the independent clause constructions they uttered, and shorter utterances made for clarification and/or to relay information in smaller units were excluded when calculating accuracy.) Terrence ostensibly seemed to have made more errors in his notetaking constructions for similar reasons to the Visit 1 and Visit 2 activities: he made more constructions to be analyzed than Frank did and would therefore have more opportunities to make errors. Additionally, as aforementioned, though I explicitly made the required tense aware prior to the start of the activity, both learners still had issues with consistently using past tense S-V agreements throughout the entirety of the activity, indicating that some of their errors were developmentally related. With that in mind, I can only conclude that the same factors that influenced the errors they produced during Visit 1 and 2 are the same factors at work here. The only new information that I have obtained from analyzing error production in this activity is that factors such as time and the context for writing and/or speaking can affect learner production. For example, in the Visit 1 activity, the learners were engaged in a speaking activity that was more informal in nature and felt less time constrained. Terrence and Frank, in this context, were able to produce more constructions and perhaps produce them more accurately.

     The major issue faced in this activity was the extreme imbalance of output between the two learners during the collaborative writing task. Both speakers were subjected to input that was devoid of interaction with me and more or less unmodified in nature. In this respect, learners had to rely on their own abilities to take useful notes that would later help them in the collaborative task. Terrence did well with his intake of the input while Frank struggled (See Appendices 6 and 7). The collaborative task did not seem to aid Frank in his ability to both intake the essential input for the task and produce the language necessary to complete it. Furthermore, for the most part, during the collaborative writing task, Terrence seemed to be relying more on what Swain (2013) terms “languaging,” a combination of private speech and collaborative dialogue, to rewrite the dictogloss text than on his direct interaction with Frank. Output for Terrence, during the collaborative task, was truly engaging him, “…to process language more deeply – with more mental effort…” where he was, “in control” (Swain, 2000, p. 99).

     Frank, on the other hand, did not exhibit the same degree of effort or ability in his output during the collaborative task. There are many factors which may have influenced his inability to participate as effectively and consistently as Terrence. One possibility relates to Frank’s developmental readiness for a task of this type. Krashen (1977, 1981, 1982) notes that input must be comprehensible and just beyond a learner’s reach (i.e. “i + 1”) for a learner to acquire language. In this respect, perhaps the “+ 1” of Krashen’s model with the given input of the task was too far beyond Frank’s current level of proficiency. Another possibility relates to the amount of noticing and/or awareness (i.e. Schmidt, 1990, 2001) Frank had of the key features of the input. Perhaps his awareness and ability to notice the most important aspects of the input, despite my efforts to create opportunities for noticing the input, was not conscious enough to determine the information he could or could not glean from it; additionally, perhaps Frank lacked the ability to draw on useful learning strategies to help him notice the significant parts of the input during the listening and notetaking part of the activity. Finally, the issue of time constraints, as aforementioned, could have influenced Frank’s performance. In the Gass and Varnois (1994) study, the native-speaker and non-native speaker interactions (henceforth, NS and NNS, respectively) had no time restrictions to complete the task. In this respect, the lack of time constraints in my Visit 3 activity, which Polio and Gass (1998) indicated may have been a reason why Gass and Varnois’ (1994) results on the effectiveness of interaction were more ambiguous in nature, may have influenced Frank’s language production. Perhaps setting a specific time constraint on the collaborative part of the task would have resulted in more interaction-like dialogue between Frank and Terrence.

     Learning in Interaction and Scaffolding Analysis. When he didn’t understand the input during the collaborative task, Frank mainly used non-verbal gestures as a signal to Terrence. While working on the collaborative writing task, Frank would often pause in his writing and look at Terrence to show he needed further guidance and/or input from him to move forward with the written task. Terrence mainly expressed that he didn’t understand something by using silent pauses and non-verbal cues (i.e. eye contact, shoulder shrugs, etc.). However, it is important to note that this was a strategy he did not often use during the interaction and much of the time, Terrence’s lack of understanding the input had more to do with recalling the story on his own rather than recalling the story while interacting with Frank.

     Frank used clarification and confirmation checks to negotiate for meaning. For example, in Line 12 (See Appendix 8), Frank says, “A jung?” in response to something that Terrence has just uttered while reconstructing the text. This confirmation check was due to the fact that Terrence had issues with pronunciation with the initial sound in the word, “young” (Using the initial sound, /dʒ/ instead of /j/). Frank used the confirmation check to note an issue he had with comprehension and an issue Terrence had with pronunciation. In this way, they were able to negotiate for meaning and reach a mutual understanding on the word to be written. In the VanPatten and Williams (2015) text, the example they use for a clarification request illustrates a NS who asks a Wh- question to correct and/or check on a learner’s utterance. Though Frank does not use Wh- questions in his clarification requests, he does use some form of it by repeating a portion of what Terrence has uttered with a rising tone, suggesting that he needs clarification on whether or not he has heard Terrence correctly. For example, in Line 12 (See Appendix 8), Frank says, “As he?” to clarify whether or not he should use that phrase in the final construction of their rewritten text. Terrence also uses clarification strategies to negotiate for meaning, but, again, his clarification requests seem to be used more for private speech verbalized (i.e. Swain’s, 2013, “languaging”) than for bringing attention to an error made by Frank or an inability to comprehend something Frank has said.

     Unfortunately, for the most part there was very little scaffolding and/or interaction between the two learners, as Terrence, being the more proficient English user, took charge of the collaborative task in a similar way that NSs took on leadership roles in NS-NNS interactions in the Polio and Gass (1998) study. They noted that pairings where the NS took a leading role (i.e. they offered and/or requested information that had not been previously offered in the task) had the lowest scores compared to NS-NNS pairings where the NS did not take a leading role (Polio & Gass, 1998, pp. 313-316). In many ways, because Terrence took a leading role in this interaction in similar ways to the NSs in the Polio and Gass (1998) study, Frank did not have much opportunity to expand on his thinking verbally in order to participate more actively in the interaction. Moreover, because Terrence exhibited such strong leadership in the activity, it was more or less unnecessary for Frank, a learner who is less confident in using English, to speak at all.

     Comparison to Previous Tasks. Terrence’s and Frank’s performance in the Visit 3 activities did not differ greatly from their performances in the previous tasks. In general, Terrence seems to be more comfortable, confident and proficient in his use of English, exhibiting the ability to perform more capably within the intermediate level. Frank, on the other hand, continues to be less comfortable and confident in his use of English, representative of a learner who is perhaps just transitioning out of an advanced beginner level of English proficiency and who will need more exposure and practice with the language to perform at the lower intermediate levels in spoken and written contexts. Because of this, Frank in all three activities was less able to demonstrate the same level of spoken and written proficiency as Terrence.

     Additionally, it is important to note that the Visit 3 activity could have been modified in specific ways to create more opportunities for Frank to use language on the individual level and in collaboration with Terrence. For example, a short introduction to the dictogloss text to tap into the learners’ prior knowledge may have helped Frank notice the important lexical and/or grammatical items connected to the theme of the text. A simple introduction to the Arctic Circle and wilderness photography where the learners could discuss what they knew about the topic may have helped Frank perform better during the notetaking, initial discussion and collaborative writing aspects of the activity. Furthermore, the learners could have been responsible for a specific part of the text: each learner could have listened to one part of the text on his own before coming together to rewrite it collaboratively with the other. In this way, it may have helped Frank to be more vocal during the collaborative writing part of the activity, and, therefore, more opportunities to observe and analyze his learner language would have been possible during this visit.

Conclusion

     Reflections on Visits with Learners. The visits I had with Terrence and Frank provided me with useful, first-hand experience with the meticulous nature of SLA research. Particularly, I think that the experiences I’ve had with designing activities to observe, analyze and reflect on interlanguage were a huge benefit for me to not only understand the amount of work that goes into research of this kind, but to also appreciate the work done by others in this aspect of SLA study and to be encouraged to continue in this type of language research to some degree in the future. It was a great experience for me to understand the complexity behind language learning and acquisition in order to have even more patience and understanding towards language learners as a teacher and towards myself as a language learner.

     I also appreciated having the chance to meet two English language learners within a different context outside of teaching. Working with Terrence and Frank has given me a clearer understanding of how personal factors can help or hinder the learning process. With these specific learners, I got a clearer insight into how different types of motivation can affect how one progresses with a given language. For these two learners, it seems that integrative motivation (i.e. Gardner & Lambert, 1972) was a crucial factor: because Terrence seems to have a stronger desire to integrate in many ways with the English language and its culture(s), it seems to have positively affected how much effort he puts into his English study both in and out of the language classroom which, in turn, has resulted in a stronger language ability in comparison to Frank. Though Frank has expressed to me varying interests and hobbies that could tie in to the English language and its culture(s), he did not seem to have the same desires and/or reasons to practice and use the language and could not share many examples of how he uses English outside of the classroom.

     Implications for Future Analysis or Research. Again, I appreciated having the opportunity to work with two non-native English speakers to gain a clearer insight and a different perspective of what they experience during the language learning process. I am only left wondering how native speakers would have affected this project. In particular, I wonder how a native speaker would have influenced Frank’s and/or Terrence’s use of English during the final activity. How would a native speaker interacting with either of them in an activity similar to that of Visit 3 have influenced their language production? Additionally, I also think that it would be interesting to explore the various types of formal and informal registers in speaking, listening and writing to see how formality, or the lack of formality, affects the learners’ overall comprehension and/or production of the language. I hope to come across more studies related to interlanguage that may give some insights to these questions or to perhaps be involved in such studies in the future.

     Implications for Teaching. Being more aware of variations within a given developmental level is perhaps one of the most significant lessons I am taking from my work with this project. It is something that I was already fundamentally aware of, but working with two learners who are technically identified as the same in terms of their English proficiency who clearly are at different levels of ability within the same developmental stage has reaffirmed to me the need to be constantly aware of these differences. Paying more critical attention to how learners perform at the individual level will be integral for me to know how best to approach a learner’s needs in the classroom as a learner’s abilities will ultimately affect how well s/he will be able to interact with other learners. Additionally, I have experienced that spoken tasks are not enough to determine one’s developmental level: rather a more equitable focus on a learner’s proficiency in speaking, listening, reading and/or writing will give me a clearer understanding of a learner’s true learner language. For example, though Frank’s spoken English was quite limited, it was the writing activity in Visit 2 that revealed his S-V constructions more clearly. With this in mind, I would like to create learning contexts with a better balance between speaking, listening, reading and writing tasks to have a more holistic approach to determining where a learner is developmentally.

 

References

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Appendix 1: Visit 1 Transcription (Terrence)

 

Line

Speaker

1

Alexis

Just, um, to start off, um, I know your name is Terrence. (Yeah.) Um, but could I know your age?

2

Terrence

Yeah, I’m 32 years old.

3

Alexis

32. And where are you from originally?

4

Terrence

From Chile. (Chile!) Yeah. (Um, whereabouts in Chile?)

5

Terrence

Uh, what about? Uh, I live in Chile for 32 years. Uh, what about what? I…

6

Alexis

Like, like where in Chile did you live? (Oh, in Santiago.) Santiago, okay. (Yeah, Santiago.)

7

Alexis

And obviously your first language is Spanish. (Spanish, yeah.)

8

Alexis

Do you speak any other languages?

9

Terrence

No, no, no. (Just Spanish and English.) Just Spanish. (Laughter/Laughter)

10

Alexis

Well you’re speaking English right now, so I would argue you can speak English.

(Laughter/Laughter)

11

Alexis

So, um, okay. So you’re from Santiago, (Yeah.) and you said you’d been living there (32 years, yeah.) for 32 years.

12

Alexis

So, you’re just here temporarily?

13

Terrence

Yes, uh, only for one year. Only for one year. I arrived last July. Uh, last week of July. I stay here for three months. They…I back to Chile to take my visa to come again in November. Yeah, I came here because my wife – I’m married (Laughter) – because my wife sh-she’s a studying. She’s in the (Unintelligible) program at University of Nottingham. So I quit my job and I come here to stay with her and…be her partner here.

14

Alexis

Okay that’s very-…so, you guys are planning on going back to… (Yeah, yeah. We need to go back.)

15

Alexis

You need to go back? (Yeah.) Why? (Why?/Laughter) If you don’t want to say that’s okay (Laughter). I’m just interested.

16

Terrence

No, no, I mean I’m just. Well…eh…well she’s a lawyer and eh…his shis her law firms lent us money to come here. Uh, he need to back to the law firm to go back… (To go back to work?) Uh, yeah.

17

Alexis

Okay, so what do you do?

18

Terrence

I’m used to be a finance engineer. In Chile. Eh, um, right now here I am studying English. Um, I’m studying, uh, cert-uh, finance certification. But alone in my-in my house. Uh, yeah, um, it’s an American certification. CFA. It’s a…international finance certification.

19

Alexis

And you’re just doing that for fun or what do you wanna do with that in the future?

20

Terrence

Well, eh, uh….it’s-it’s really important for my job. Eh, that kind of certification. It’s…eh, eh, the CFA it’s like an MBA for the finance area, so, eh, around the world it’s really known.

21

Alexis

So it, yeah, it has a lot of weight to it. (Yeah, it’s a lot (Unintelligible) the-the curriculum.)

22

Alexis

Okay. And you said you’re here studying English….um, but um, how long have you been studying English?

23

Terrence

In here? (Uh, here, anywhere…)

24

Terrence

Anywhere, well I start s-…in the school at the school. Yeah when I was a child but…eh, we have separate course. I was in the elementary s- elementary course the, uh, the school. Then in the university I had uh…I had a like three course of basic English. Um…and nothing else.

25

Alexis

So, did you…did you learn English because you had to or do you have an actual interest in learning English or…?

26

Terrence

Nah, it’s…in the finance worlds and the business worlds it’s…world it’s really important to learn English. That’s why-that’s why I’m here learning English.

27

Alexis

Do you have any other, um, reasons, personal reasons for wanting to learn English outside of like for your job?

28

Terrence

Um, well, eh, I love the cinema. (Laughter) I love it. I love it. I love watch movies, yeah. Uh, I love to hear the movies in the original language. So, yeah, that’s, uh, I like to learn English, uh, I, uh…I want to improve my English, you know, so I can enjoy more than, more, uh, a film in the original language. And-And English is quite a…yeah, it’s…mm, how (Unintelligible) say? It’s…easier because with English you can speak in whole over world. Whole…the world.

29

Alexis

Yeah, it’s pretty much everywhere, isn’t it? (Yeah.) It’s taken over. (Laughter/Laughter)

30

Alexis

Um, um, so…um, whereabouts in Nottingham do you live with your wife? Are you in the city center or outside?

31

Terrence

Near, near here. I live in Derby road with Lenton Boulevard.

32

Alexis

Okay, that’s not too far from here. (Yeah, yeah.) How do you like it?

33

Terrence

Yeah….yeah it’s really nice because it’s really near here. I walk. It’s 15 minutes by walking from-from here. And we choose this spot because is cuts in the middle between the town and the university. It’s 25 minutes by walking to the University of Nottingham and 25 minutes to the city center.

34

Alexis

Is she over at the Jubilee Campus?

35

Terrence

No. (Okay.) She’s in the University Park.

36

Alexis

Oh, my-my husband. That’s why I’m here as well. Because…I’m not from here. I’m from the States. He’s here temporarily… (Yeah I know by your accent.) (Laughter/Laughter)

37

Alexis

He’s here temporarily because he’s studying for his PGCE with the University of Nottingham. So I’m kind of here alone most of the time and then just studying on the side. (Laughter) Um, okay, so how do you…how do you find, like, Nottingham in general? How does it compare to where you’re from originally? And what do you like about it, or…?

38

Terrence

Well, this-this is a small city compared with Santiago. Santiago is uh…7 million people…7 million people in Santiago so is like really big city. Nottingham is, uh…nice country. (Laughter/Laughter)

39

Terrence

(Unintelligible) a county. Yeah, it’s a…like a small view. Eh, but it’s-it’s really nice because they have a lot of bars. They have quite good restaurants. Eh, well, they have a, uh, few…market and supermarket. Yeah, eh, the life is easy here. It’s not crowded, uh, yeah, it’s quite good. But here it’s nice.

40

Alexis

How do you-How would you compare it to, um…which would you-which do you prefer? Or do you…well, I know what you’re probably going to say, but… (Laughter)

41

Terrence

(Laughter) It’s less-less stressful (Unintelligible) here. I’ll…Yeah, I prefer the life here. (Really?)

42

Terrence

Yeah. Well, if maybe I had a jo- a good job, maybe I could stare- stay here.

43

Alexis

Okay. Um, so, why do you think that way? Like why would you…I don’t know. I’m just-I’m just interested to know.

44

Terrence

Uh, well, eh…the quality of life. Yeah, it’s quite-quite nice. The…em, I think the salaries are really good here in-in England. Um…and-and, eh, well in Santiago the life is quite different because the people are really, really different. Here are more, uh, cosmopolitan country. UK’s a cosmopolitan country, so, eh, it’s easier to find different kind of persons. In-in Chile it’s not so typical to find, eh, a people from outsides. In some places I neighbors, uh, but only well…I don’t know the exactly word, but…mm, I think in Chile the-the people are more chauvinist than the, than in other, than in Nottingham.

45

Alexis

Okay. That was interesting to know. Um, so, are-are the rest of your-your, are your family in Chile? (Yeah.)

46

Alexis

Do you get to talk with them often?

47

Terrence

Yeah, yeah. I try to talk to them…at least…once a week. (Oh, that’s nice.) No, once, like, two weeks. (Laughter/Laughter)

48

Alexis

Do you-Do you mainly speak to them in Spanish or do you speak with them in English? Do they know English?

49

Terrence

No, no, no. No, my mom and my sisters can’t speak English.

50

Alexis

So you didn’t have much English experience in your home? (No, no, no.) That’s quite interesting.

51

Alexis

Um…let’s see. You’re giving me very good stuff. (Laughter) It’s nice to get to know you. I like getting to know new people. Um, so you said that, you know, you’re learning English obviously because you’re in finance. I think you’re quite similar to Eugenio because he’s a pharmacist so in-in that field or work you also have to know English. Um, um to kind of be able to integrate or travel more and…yeah. So, um, so…it seems like English is like a long-term thing for you. Um, so, I know it’s helped you kind of in your work life, but do you feel that English, knowing English has helped you in any other part of your life?

52

Terrence

Yeah, yeah of course. Uh, well, as I told you a few minutes ago, eh, for travelling it’s really-really easier to, it’s a good language to speak in every country. Uh, I travel a lot, eh, in-in Europe, and uh the English has helped me a lot. Also to speak to…to speak with foreign people. Chinese. The Chinese try to speak in English, and I try to speak in English too. So it’s easier, it’s a easy way to communicate.

53

Alexis

Easy way to unify… (Yeah, yeah.)

54

Alexis

Yeah. Are there any other languages you’d be interesting-interested in learning?

55

Terrence

I love French. Yeah, I love French. Eh, I’m interesting in Japanese, but I think it’s I’m too old to learn Japanese. (Laughter) Yeah, yeah.

56

Alexis

Why-Why French and Japanese? What about those two languages…

57

Terrence

Yeah, uh, I like Japa- I like French because, eh, I love the sound of French.

58

Alexis

Okay. What-What about it? Cuz I know it sounds-it sounds a bit different, well obviously sounds different to Spanish, but what about it that…

59

Terrence

Well, the uh…em…have you ever watched Matrix?

60

Alexis

Oh, yeah.

61

Terrence

Yeah, Matrix in the second one in the second movie one of the characters said, the, eh, said bad words in French. It’s softly. It’s really good to say bad words. You know, it sounds good.

62

Alexis

(Laughter/Laughter) You sound sophisticated when you’re-when you’re cursing someone. (Yeah, uh….yeah, it’s-it’s really fun.)

63

Alexis

Uh, and why…I would argue that Spanish cussing can sometimes sound very, like have finesse, but, um…what about Japanese? What about Japanese…

64

Terrence

Well, Japanese is because is completely different eh…language. And I like the Japanese culture. I’m interesting in Japanese culture.

65

Alexis

Okay what about-what about Japanese culture fascinates you or interests you?

66

Terrence

Yeah, uh, it’s a really old (Laughter) culture and it’s very interesting it’s quite different from the Occidental culture. Yeah it’s really different about my culture. So it’s kind of attractive.

67

Alexis

Okay. Do you watch many, like, Japanese films? Is it like films or the, mm, like Samurai culture or anything like…

68

Terrence

Yeah, yeah like Samurai movies or-or TV series like that something. (That’s what attracted you.) Yeah, yeah.

69

Alexis

Okay. Um, okay. So it seems that…it’s really interesting cuz you learned English…it’s seems like you learned English from a young age mostly in school. Because you didn’t really use it at home.

70

Terrence

No, I watched a lot of TV in English. So I learned English, and my position is for the TV. From Netfilx. Here the professors makes a lot of jokes, eh, because my accent is like, “Oh, you have an American accent.” And when I write I write like an American. I, uh, the dates, uh, the wrong day. The “z” and the “s” in analyze, jeopardize, that-that kind of words…

71

Alexis

Yeah, yeah. Do you use the…do you prefer the (Yeah, yeah.) American spelling?

72

Terrence

Or “color.” (Yeah, with the O-U…) O-U, yeah, yeah. (Laughter)

73

Terrence

That kind of things. They say, “You are too American!” (Laughter/Laughter)

74

Alexis

So, okay, so you…in your home life you just mainly ba- your experiences with English, um, in Chile, were-were just with TV. You didn’t really speak with anyone outside of classrooms in English.

75

Terrence

Umm, in bars? Sometimes when you mee-, eh, introduce you to, um, foreign people. Yeah. We…my wife used to live, err…live abroad one year, so in-in our house we used

to receive people from foreign countries. So…that kind of (o)ccasions, we speak in English.

76

Alexis

Oh yes. Okay. So…um, what about here? Do you find that there’s a good balance between how much you speak English in your home life and-and Spanish or mainly speak Spanish with your wife? Or…

77

Terrence

In my…in our house we speak Spanish. Yeah, in our house we speak Spanish. Yeah, in our house we speak Spanish because, eh, my wife is the whole day in the…in the university speaking English. I need to go home (Unintelligible) I talk in Spanish. Yeah. I need cuz I…to…my wife the-the-the….the English is very important, but she is, she has difficult way the hearing the-the…she have hear problems. (Laughter) She never understand the things right…she’s really good at writing. Really really good at writing. But she has a problem with her…he never catch the whole sentence, uh, yeah she’s…so she has to effort a lot to practice her (unintelligible) of hearing English.

78

Alexis

Do you get much, I mean, I know…do you go out much in the neigh- in the community in England to actively try to use your English?

79

Terrence

Yeah, yeah. We usually go out with uh, eh…the friends of the (Unintelligible) program. And, uh, we usually goes to bars. Yeah, yeah there’s a lot of bars in England. Yeah, yeah we usually go to bars and speak with the-the people in bars. We usually sits at the bar, at the bar, yeah.

80

Alexis

So you do that actively so you can use your English? Or you just happen to do it?

81

Terrence

Yeah. Um, we went to…we usually goes to the bar to speak English in the bars. Everybody very nice in the bar. Because they’re almost drunk. (Laughter/Laughter) (People are usually really nice in bars. It’s usually either really nice or really angry, and…)

82

Alexis

So, do you feel like you’ve benefitted more from learning English in a classroom or from just doing pursuing your own interests outside of the classroom? Which do you think has worked best for you in learning English?

83

Terrence

I-I told you I learned English, eh, watching TV, so I can hear a lot of English. I can speak, eh, uh…I can speak a lot and my pronunciation is good, but, eh, but I…have a really really bad in grammar. I really bad in grammar, so I need this class. I (Unintelligible) this kind of class to improve my English grammar.

84

Alexis

Okay, so that’s just the-the main focus here? (Yes.) Okay.

85

Alexis

Um, let’s see. (And the vocabulary here…) Yeah…((Unintelligible) the normal life you can learn, uh, vocabularies that people is talking and you only catch some words and sometimes you meet some words…)

86

Alexis

Is there a big, um, Spanish community in Nottingham that you and your wife have connected to? Or do you find it’s, that it doesn’t really exist?

87

Terrence

I know…we try to…don’t connect with the Spanish speaker (Unintelligible). Yeah, we try to avoid the Spanish speaker here.

88

Alexis

Oh, why? Why is that?

89

Terrence

Eh, because we want to learn English. (Laughter)

90

Alexis

Okay. But don’t you ever just miss it? Like, uh, being able to just go out (Yeah, yeah!) and just hear Spanish.

91

Terrence

We have, eh…Chilean friends here. So we meet like every 10 days or twice a month. Yeah, so we didn’t cut the Spanish speaker here, but we try to avoid them. Uh…or we invite, eh, no-no Spanish speaker to the…to the meetings or to the to, go, to watch art. That kind of things. We prefer to mix them.

92

Alexis

You prefer to mix the Spanish speakers and the English speakers?

93

Terrence

Yeah. So you need to speak in-in-in English. Last, last week we went to the cinema, and we watch, eh, The 33.

94

Alexis

The 33…I haven’t heard of that film.

95

Terrence

The 33 it’s the-the story about the miners in Chile.

96

Alexis

Oh, yeah (You know that the miners is stranded in the-in the mine.) that’s supposed to be good.

97

Terrence

Eh, and we went with Chinese friends, eh, Turkish friends to watch the movie, um with other Chilean guys. To watch the movie. Was really, was really fun.

 

Appendix 2: Visit 1 Transcription (Frank)

 

Line

Speaker

1

Alexis

So your name is Frank. (Aljaroud.) Aljaroud. Oh, I like that. Um, how old are you? (Uh, 29.) 29. (Yes.) Um, and where are you from originally? (Saudi Arabia.) Oh, whereabouts? (Uh…S- Riyadh.) Riyadh. Okay, yeah, um, I’m going to be working in Muscat, Oman, (Oman!) and I-but I interviewed for a job in Riyadh, but we-my husband, and I took the job in Muscat. (In Muscat, I know.) So you’re first language is…? (Arabic.) Arabic. (Yes.) Um, actually can I ask you what dialect? Because I know the written form is different from- the different…like-

2

Frank

(Unintelligible) are different. And if I write now…from, uh, right to left (Yeah.) It’s different for me. (It’s different!) Difficult if I don’t…learn English. (Laughter)

3

Alexis

So, um…so you’re first language is…Arabic. (Yes.) You’re very comfortable with that. Written, spoken, everything? (Yes.) Um, how long have you been learning English?

4

Frank

Actually came here, uh…seven months ago or eight months ago. (Okay.) But, uh…I studied in my country in, uh, high school, but, uh, actually not good. Because the teacher was, uh, Arabic, and speak Arabic, and…I couldn’t understand. (Laughter/Laughter) But I came here- when I came here first-my first time here…just I know, “Yes,” “No.” Just. (Oh, really?) But it’s a…better. I hope more but not bad. For me.

5

Alexis

So how many years, um, did you study English in Riyadh? From…just in high school? Or did you study in…?

6

Frank

No, in high school. Just. (For how many years?) Three years, but, uh, not good. Was, uh, (Cuz of your…) bad. (Laughter/Laughter) Not like…just, uh, one time a week. (Okay.) The teacher was Arabic and speak Arabic. I can’t, uh…learn anything.

7

Alexis

So sh-, uh, he or she? (Uh…he.) Okay. Did he, um, did he use Arabic for most of the lesson?

8

Frank

Yes, he didn’t speak English. How we can… (Laughter/Laughter)

9

Alexis

Um, okay so you’re from Riyadh, and you’re- (Yeah.) you just moved from there to here eight-eight months ago. (Eight months ago.) Um, so what is Riyadh like actually? I would really be interested to know.

10

Frank

Big city…and noisy city. Uh…a lot of traffic jam. You can’t move anywhere. If you want go out, uh, you have to…like if I were work, I must, uh, go my work before one hour. (To make it there in time?) Yes.

11

Alexis

Okay. Um, what kinds of things, uh, what was life like there for you? What kinds of things did you do, and where- what places did you go to?

12

Frank

Actually no place like this, but, uh…most of people in Riyadh or in Saudi Arabia most, uh, they like, uh, rent flat or rent like house. Just a friend. And, uh, we meet every day this flat. (For…just to?) Just to play, uh, computer games or just to see together. Just- (Oh, okay.) Cuz we haven’t, uh…anyplace. (Anyplace to go.) Yeah.

13

Alexis

So there’s not many places to go out like here where- (No.) movies or any-

14

Frank

No, we have, uh, (Unintelligible)…not every day at work. Most of people, uh, rent a flat. And they stay in the flat. Meet friend. (Okay.) It’s nice. (Laughter/Laughter)

15

Alexis

So, um, what was your favorite thing to do in Riyadh?

16

Frank

Actually, I like, uh, sport car. And, uh, all my, uh…time spent, uh…time and money spent this car. When I got, uh, holiday I can’t go out. (Oh, yes.) Just, uh, stay in my house or get another city. (Okay.)

17

Alexis

Oh, what other cities have you visited in Saudi Arabia?

18

Frank

All the city! (Laughter/Laughter) Dammam city because they have, uh, nice (Unintelligible), uh, Dammam. And in other country, uh, like Kuwait, uh, in Emirates. (Okay.) I visited all of them. (Oh, that’s sounds nice.) Yeah.

19

Alexis

Um, have you visited any other countries, um, other than England?

20

Frank

No. Uh…just, uh…I visited Egyp- Egypt. (Uh-huh.) Because, uh, my work, uh…sent, uh, me to, uh…training. (Oh, okay.) One month.

21

Alexis

What’s, uh, what’s your job?

22

Frank

Uh…assistance. Like, uh…secretaria. Secretare, uh…(A secretary?) A secretary, yes. (Okay. For a company or…?) No, no, my government. (Oh, okay!) Yes. (And…for the government. So what kind of work do you do…for…?) Secretary. But now, uh, I came here, uh, I got holiday because, uh…with my, uh, sister. (Yes.) She is, uh, study master in England. (Oh.) And I came with her because I want learn English. (Oh, very nice!) (Laughter/Laughter)

23

Alexis

What does your sister-uh, your sister, uh, what’s she studying?

24

Frank

Uh…physics? (Oh.) Yes. (Oh, very nice.) She won’t start after four months. (Okay.)

25

Alexis

Um…so. Let me see. So, you know Arabic. You know English. Are there any other languages that you speak?

26

Frank

No. (Laughter/Laughter) English, and, uh…not good. (Laughter)

27

Alexis

So, oh, that’s- we’re communicating, so that’s okay! (Laughter/Laughter) Um, um…let’s see. Um, so you live here with your sister. (Yes.) And whereabouts in Nottingham do you live?

28

Frank

In the city center. (In the city center.) Yes. (Oh, okay, so you’re not very far from here at all.) No, just, uh, maybe…ten minutes or less.

29

Alexis

Oh, very nice. So what kinds of things do you and your sister do together here in the city?

30

Frank

Actually in the weekend…sometime visit another city like, uh, Leicester or Birmingham or Manchester or London. Or the city center do some shopping, or just… (Yeah.) That’s all. (Okay.)

31

Alexis

Like have you guys, um, do you have many friends here in…?

32

Frank

Yes. (Yeah?) Men, uh, from my country. (Okay.) Or another one from the college.

33

Alexis

Sure. Can you tell me a little bit about your friends?

34

Frank

Uh…I met to the…I meet with the…them every day in the…the gym. (Ah!) I know them from the gym. In the weekend we will go another, uh, place like a pub or like, uh, anything. (Okay.) Yeah.

35

Alexis

Um, do you find yourself using, um, English more or Arabic more when you’re with your friends and family?

36

Frank

This my, uh, problem when I came in first time. I studied in another college. My, uh, class was, uh, all the student Arab, and we, uh, spoke, uh, Arabic. And, uh, I change this, uh, college because…I came here I want learn English, not learn Arabic. (Yeah.)

37

Alexis

Oh, so the first class you went to here in Nottingham was just all Arabic students.

38

Frank

Yes, in another college. (Ah, yeah.) There was 16, uh, students. All this Arabic. And…I didn’t get anything like…English. (Yeah.) And, they change it, uh, (Unintelligible) school. They came here. It’s better than…before. (Oh, very good.) Yes.

39

Alexis

Um, so…what kinds of things, um…I lost my train of thought. Um, so what- what kinds of things do you like about Nottingham? Or do you prefer Riyadh, or…? What- What’s your opinion on living here in Nottingham? What do you like about it or dislike?

40

Frank

Actually (Laughter) I like my city…Riyadh. (Yeah.) But of course like- but here, it’s, uh…like transport here, uh, bus or anything, uh, I can. My city, uh, I can’t. (Yes.) Just car and, uh, traffic jam all the street. Here I…I like, uh, really the transport. If we have in my country… (Mhm.) I think my car…just weekend I use my car. (Ah, yeah! So that’s very simple.) Yes. And the weather here it’s, uh, nice. But sometime change one day four season. (Laughter) (Like today. It’s a perfect-) My country no. It’s…very hot. (Laughter)

41

Alexis

So, um…do you prefer…actually, um, I have a good question for you. Um, why- why is English important to you? Why are you learning English? And, um, why- cuz you said you came here with your sister (Yes.) because you wanted to work on your English. (Yes.) For what purpose?

42

Frank

Me, maybe, uh, (Unintelligible) my job. For they know, I, uh, speak English or, uh, speak English. They give me good salary or good, uh, job. They like, uh, read in the…website. Told you I like, uh, sport car. (Yes.) They want, uh, buy something for this car. From U.S.A. or, uh, cheap, uh, than, uh, factory in my country. (Mhm.) Before I phone my, uh, friend, “Please…I want this. You can, uh…order this for me?” (Mhm.) And he’d will did this for me. Cuz, uh…I can’t, uh…know the website English. (Ah, yeah. So…) That’s for me it’s good. (Good.)

43

Alexis

Um, so you work for- you work for an- a company that sells or makes cars? (Me?) Yeah, you said, um, you- (No, no. I, uh-) Or it’s just for fun? (No just for fun. For myself. Just-) Ah! Okay, really cool! (Laughter) Um…so you want to learn English just to improve, um, to get a better paying job? (Yes.) What- what exactly do you want to do? What- what would you…you…dream job?

44

Frank

Dream job? I…I hope, uh, open, uh, like a big factory for cars or a spare, uh, cars. Spare parts, uh, car. Or a garage for car. I hope that, but, uh…(Unintelligible)

45

Alexis

Have you always loved cars like from a young boy or is it- was it a new thing?

46

Frank

No, I like cars a new thing or, uh, fast car or sport car. (Okay.) I have problem with my balance. (Laughter) Cuz they tell me, “Stop spend monies to time…spend time…” But I can’t. (Is this your family saying, “Stop”? Laughter) Yes. Stop spending more! I know this not good for me spend money, but, uh, I can’t stop. (Laughter/Laughter)

47

Alexis

Um, what’s your family like? Are they all back in Riyadh? (Yes.) Okay, um…what are they like? What do they like to do, um…?

48

Frank

I have a big family. (Okay, yeah!) Is, uh…fi- uh…seven brother. (Wow.) Six sister. And, uh…four, uh…my brothers all…of them, uh, got married. And, uh, three my sister…they got married. Uh…another, uh, brother and sister they lives with my, uh, parents. In same house. (Okay.) Yes. (Yeah.)

49

Alexis

Do they speak English or just Arabic?

50

Frank

Uh…I have, uh, two sisters…they speak English, and, uh…one, uh, my brother just…all of them not.

51

Alexis

Um, and…are they all just around Saudi Arabia? Or do any of them live in other countries?

52

Frank

Uh…actually, my, uh, sisters, uh, live in Sudan. (Oh, really?) Yes, because, uh, my, uh…his, uh, husband. He works, uh, my government, my, uh, embassy in Sudan. (Oh, yeah. Whereabouts in Sudan?) In Khartoum. (Ah! I had a job interview there as well!) (Laughter/Laughter) He just, uh, left, uh, Sudan, uh, one years ago. And, uh, he will, uh, stay four years. Maybe he will continue eight years. (Really?) He works in the- my embassy.

53

Alexis

Oh, very cool. Um, that’s your brother…with his wife? Or your sister with her… (Uh, my sister with, uh..) Her husband. Do they have any kids or anything like that?

54

Frank

Yes, uh, three kids. (Ah, very nice.) Yeah.

55

Alexis

Um…so do you get to speak with your family often? Or…(Yeah.) Is it just you and your sister kind of on your own? Or…? (Uh, sorry?) Do you- do you call your family often?

56

Frank

Yes, uh, every day. (Oh, that’s good.) Every day I, uh, call my fa- my mom just. And, uh, if he is still my, uh, father, I will…cuz my father all time- most of time out. (Working in different places?) No, just with, uh, his, uh, friend. (Laughter/Laughter) Cuz, uh…(Laughter) (So just mom at home?) (Laughter/Laughter) Because, uh, he was a teacher, but, uh, he’s, uh, retired.

57

Alexis

Okay. Oh, very nice. So does your mom miss you? What- what do you talk about with your mom? Is she just like, “Oh, come home!”

58

Frank

I told, uh, my mom, uh I want continue my study here. When my sister finish, she will come back in my country, but me I will stay. (Okay.) And she told me, “No, please don’t continue! Come…” (Laughter/Laughter)

59

Alexis

Um, what would you like to do in Nottingham if you stay? Would you stay in Nottingham or would you go somewhere else?

60

Frank

No (Unintelligible)…it’s better for me. (Yeah.) My sister now it’s, uh- will study in, uh, Leftborough. (Mm.) University of Leftborough, but we will stay in Nottingham, cuz, uh, we went, uh, Lestera- Leftborough, but it’s boring. (What makes it so boring to you?) It’s uh…small or…not like Nottingham. We like Nottingham but- because not big, not small. The middle. (Yeah.) Not like Manchester and London. Not like, uh, Leftborough. (It’s right there in the middle.) Yes! (Laughter/Laughter)

61

Alexis

Um, okay. So you said you have a really big interest in sports cars, and (Yes.) your parents are always like, “Stop buying stuff!” Um, do you have any other interests in sports or writing or reading or…do you do anything else?

62

Frank

Sports sometime play football. (Oh, okay.) And, uh…two years ago, I start running are- uh…the gym. Cuz I was, uh, fat before, and I must lose my weight. (Okay.) (Laughter)

63

Alexis

Um…let me just see. Um…how would you, um, how would you describe your English level now? What do you think is good about your English level, and what do you want to improve on with your English?

64

Frank

Now it’s, uh- my, uh…my bad English, my, uh, writing. (Mm.) My spelling it’s, uh, not, uh, good. (Oh.) Because I will do, uh…exam IELTS. (Ah.) I did, uh, before, but I got, uh, not good mark. But I will try next time, but my spelling it’s, uh, not good.

65

Alexis

Okay. Um…you- IELTS you said. (Yeah.) What are you taking the IELTS for?

66

Frank

Uh, maybe I will study continue here. (Ah.) Yes. (Just focusing on English then?) Yes.

67

Alexis

Um, what about other…um, other languages? Are you interested in learning any other language?

68

Frank

I, uh, like learn, uh, France. (Ah!) But now I (Laughter/Laughter) I will learn English, and…we’ll see.

70

Alexis

What about French, um, is interesting to you?

71

Frank

Just I like the (Unintelligible) (Oh, okay. There’s nothing in particular.) Yeah just I want to speak it in France.

72

Alexis

Have you had any previous- uh, have you had any other experience with French that caught your interest, you were like, “Oh…”?

73

Frank

No, but my friend, uh, she from, uh, France. (Ah!) Sometime she speak France. (The sound?) I like it. (Laughter/Laughter) (Yeah. The sound is very nice!)

74

Alexis

Um…let’s see. So, um…do you get to use English quite a lot, um, outside of the school?

75

Frank

Yes, yes. With my friend. My friend from Saudi Arabia is, uh, all of time, uh, speak English with…him. My sister sometimes speak English with, uh- in my flat. Not speak Arabic. (Yeah.)

76

Alexis

So do you find that you go- you try really hard to keep practicing your English outside of school?

77

Frank

Yes, of course, but, uh…when I, uh, finish my school I’m happy cuz I am speak English. (Yeah.) But when I go the shopping, (Yeah.) I can’t understand anybody. (What about it makes it hard?) Uh…the accent, it’s, uh, I don’t know. All the word together (Unintelligible) (Yeah, no. I can understand. I can understand that. If I’ve heard, um…yeah, I can understand you!) (Laughter/Laughter)

78

Alexis

Um…so…do you think that, um, for you so far with your English learning- cuz you’ve- you said you studied for about three years in high school, and that wasn’t very- a good experience. (For me not so good.) And you said when you came here eight months ago, you could say, “Yes,” and “No,” and now you feel you’re in a better place. So do you think that it’s been mostly class, or- or just living in an English speaking country that’s helped you?

79

Frank

No, I think it’s, uh, when I live here, and the teacher in English, and, uh, the student, uh, they don’t speak Arabic. I think that’s, uh, help me (Yeah!) learn English. (Okay.) Cuz when I study in high school…doesn’t make sense. They, uh, speak Arabic all of…I didn’t understand anything. (Yeah.)

80

Alexis

Did you have much opportunity outside of school in Riyadh to use English at all, or (No.) was it mainly in Arabic? (No.)

81

Frank

All of in Arabic. And, uh, shop speak Arabic. And the restaurant speak Arabic. I can’t use, uh…(Yeah.)

 

Appendix 3: Error Analysis Table for Written Assessment (Terrence)

 

Line number

Phrase of Sentence with Error

Target Language Reformulations

Possible Cause of Error

Part 1, Question 3

Those girls run to the bus quickly because they didn’t want to miss it.

Those girls ran to the bus quickly because they didn’t want to miss it.

Confusion on the time the event took place. The word, “didn’t” indicates a past event, but the student could have missed this in the context of the sentence.

Part 1, Question 4

My professors never makes jokes about the students in the class.

My professors never make jokes about the students in the class.

Interference from the student’s L1. Plural subjects get plural nouns (e.g. los profesores hacen; both profesores and the verb hacen indicate plurality); Also there is the correlation plural subjects/verbs have to make with objects – in this case the word “jokes” is plural so there may be an oversimplification of marking the verb make with a plural -s marker here.

Part 1, Question 7

They often swimming in the lake by the school.

They often swim in the lake by the school.

Uncertain. Most likely due to developmental stage in L2.

Part 1, Question 10

The boys often plays video games together after school.

The boys often play video games together after school.

Uncertain. Most likely due to developmental stage in L2.

Part 1, Question 11

Tanya sometimes visit her parents’ house on the weekends.

Tanya sometimes visits her parents’ house on the weekends.

Uncertain. Most likely due to developmental stage in L2. (Acquisition of morpheme -s for singular present tense)

Part 2B, Sentence 1

In the story appear a fox.

Opt. 1: In the story, a fox appeared.

Opt. 2: A fox appeared in the story.

Most likely due to developmental stage in L2. (Construction of dependent and independent clauses to form complex sentences.)

Part 2B, Sentence 2

He loves his tail.

He loved his tail.

Maybe just a simple mistake in forgetting to tell the story in the past tense.

Part 2B, Sentence 6

When he woked up he realized that…

Opt. 1: When he woke up, he realized that…

Opt. 2: He realized, when he woke up, that…

Most likely due to developmental stage in L2/U-Shaped Behavior (Overgeneralization of past tense -ed)

Part 2B, Sentence 6

…he realized that his tail was shopped.

Opt. 1: …he realized that his tail was chopped.

Opt. 2: …he realized his tail had been chopped.

Most likely due to developmental stage in L2 (Acquisition of perfect forms; phonetic differences with initial sound in chopped; etc.)

Part 2B, Sentence 7

…until he fount a house.

…until he found a house.

Issues with the phonetic sounds of /d/ and /t/ in English vs. Spanish? Very few words in Spanish have /t/ as a final sound…

Part 2B, Sentence 9

…when he was shotting again.

…when he was shot again.

Most likely due to developmental stage in L2/U-Shaped behavior (Overgeneralizing continuous for past and present tenses)

Part 2B, Sentence 10

When he woked up…

When he woke up…

Most likely due to developmental stage in L2/U-Shaped Behavior (Overgeneralization of past tense -ed)

 

Appendix 4: Error Analysis Table for Written Assessment (Frank)

 

Line number

Phrase of Sentence with Error

Target Language Reformulations

Possible Cause of Error

Part 1, Question 4

My professors never made jokes about the students in the class.

My professors never make jokes about the students in the class.

Technically, his construction here is correct as there are no other markers in the sentence to indicate present tense.

Part 1, Question 7

They often swimming in the lake by the school.

They often swim in the lake by the school.

Uncertain. Most likely due to developmental stage in L2.

Part 1, Question 10

The boys often playing video games together after school.

The boys often play video games together after school.

Could be some L1 interference here as there is some difficulty for Arabic learners for English in using both present and continuous forms as they only have present forms in Arabic. Could be indicative of developmental stage with morphemes for tenses.

Part 1, Question 11

Tanya sometimes visit her parents’ house on the weekends.

Tanya sometimes visits her parents’ house on the weekends.

Uncertain. Most likely due to developmental stage in L2. (Acquisition of morpheme -s for singular present tense)

Part 2A, Sentence 1

My friend always promes to stop smok.

My friend always promises to stop smoking.

Here the error could be due to one of two things or both working simultaneously; (1) an issue with spelling that makes the written version seem incorrect; (2) an issue with developmental stage, namely acquisition of the morpheme -s for third person singular S-V forms

Part 2A, Sentence 2

He always doing some exarsise in morning.

Opt. 1: He is always doing (some) exercises in the morning.

SLA Stage development issues with: (1) morpheme – ing and be + verb-ing

Opt. 2: He’s always doing (some) exercises in the morning.

Opt. 3: In the morning, he’s always doing (some) exercises.

Opt. 4: In the morning, he’s always doing (some) exercises.

Opt. 5: He always does (some) exercises in the morning.

Opt. 6: In the morning, he always does (some) exercises.

construction for present continuous; (2) construction of irregular present tense verbs for singular nouns

Part 2B, Sentence 1 (Approximately)

…when the fox walked saw the rabbit…

…when the fox saw the rabbit…

Uncertain as to the exact reason why this error was made. Perhaps it was a simple mistake of changing directions in thought without physically correcting the written error (in this case, having two verbs written together where only one verb can function meaningfully in the construction)

Part 2B, Sentence 3 (Approximately)

…the tail of the fox cutted…

Opt. 1: …the fox’s tail was cut…

Opt. 2: …the tail of the fox was cut…

Opt. 3: They cut the fox’s tail.

Overgeneralization of past tense -ed marker


Appendix 5: Original Dictogloss Text

Source for dictogloss fully cited in References. Dictogloss Text: A Story about a Wildlife Photographer (From: English Unlimited)

I was in the Arctic with an Inuit guide, a long way above the Arctic Circle, where I was taking photographs of seals underwater. After a few days the weather turned bad and we decided to spend the night on the ice. Early the next morning I was lying in the tent, just waking up, when I felt something moving against my feet. I looked to see what it was, and I could see the shape of a young polar bear which was playing with my feet through the wall of the tent. I kept as still as I could, and very quietly woke the guide and told him what was happening. He said, ‘Don’t worry, just stick your head out of the tent and it will go away.’ So I said. ‘Well, you stick your head out of the tent.’ And that’s exactly what he did – he stuck his head out of the tent, and sure enough the polar bear went away.

 

Appendix 6: Dictogloss Notes (Terrence)

Notes include original text written while dictogloss text was read aloud twice and text written when learner one and learner two collaborated on notes for rewriting activity.

 

Screenshot 2019-06-05 at 21.07.08.png
Screenshot 2019-06-05 at 21.07.36.png

Appendix 7: Dictogloss Notes (Frank)

Notes include original text written while dictogloss text was read aloud twice and text written when learner one and learner two collaborated on notes for rewriting activity.

 

Screenshot 2019-06-05 at 21.08.10.png

 

Appendix 8: Visit 3 Transcription (Terrence and Frank)

 

Line

Speaker

1

Alexis

Okay, so one of you can write, and, um, when you-after you share your notes, one of you can just turn the page over, and one will be the writer as you work out the story in writing.

2

Terrence

Okay…I was in the, um (Unintelligible). Arctic? With an Inuit guy a long way to the Arctic Circle. Um, To take photos from whales? (I was taking photos.) What’s, uh, and what other things? (He was, uh, taking photos.) Okay? Take photos. Whales?

3

Frank

It was, uh, that.

4

Terrence

Yeah. Bad weather? So they plan… (Writing on Notes Page) They plan…to stay the night. In a tent? (Mm.)

5

Frank

Was move, uh, my feet.

6

Terrence

Yeah. The next morning? (Writing on Notes Page) Something moved something…was a young polar bear. I told-I… (They said.) I talked to my guy. Guide, I think? And…he said stick your head out of the tent and the polar bear will go away. (Yeah, what he said.) Yeah…and guy said, “You stick (Laughter)…” (You stick.) Yeah, so it’s the frame. So he stuck out the head, and the polar…yeah.

7

Frank

(Unintelligible) service. Last time I didn’t try. (Writing on Notes Page)

8

Terrence

And I (Laughter) have to put more connections, but there’s the idea. (Writing on Notes Page)

9

Alexis

You think you got it? Frank, do you want to read it out, and see if there’s anything that you want to add?

10

Terrence

Uh, I want to rewrite (Laughter) because I have…(Okay.)

11

Alexis

How about you read it out to Frank, and he’ll write it down for you? (Sorry?) Uh, you read it out to Frank, and then, (Okay.) he’ll can write it down. (Eh, I write?) You write it down.

12

Terrence

I was in the Arctic…with an…Inuit. (Huh?) Inuit. It’s “an Inuit.” (Okay.) Inuit guide. A long way to the Arctic Circle. (To?) To the Arctic Circle. (Cir-) Circle. I went there. To take photos. Of whales. And other animals – because I can’t remember the name – eh, because of the…bad weather. (Because?) No, I don’t know it’s because. (I think…weather was, uh, bad?) Yeah. The weather turns bad. So we plan to stay the night. (Night?) Stay…the night? In a tent. Next morning. Something moved. Moved, I think it’s with “d.” Moved. (Mood?) In past. My feet. It was. A young polar bear. (A jung?) Young. Polar bear. I…I woke up my guide. (I woke up…) I woke up…my guide and explained the situation. Si- tu-a-tion. Situation. He said. To me. The little quotation marks? Stick your head out. Stick. Stick. C-K. Your head out of the tent. And the polar bear. Will go away. (Well?) Will. Go away. Close the quotation marks. So. And I said. You stick your head out of the tent. Out of the tent. Of the tent. Okay. And so. He stuck out. He stuck. In past. Stuck out. The head. And the polar bear. Went away. As he said. (As he?) Said. Probably it’s not, so it’s then. (This?) Then. Yeah, no, uh, yeah.

 

Appendix 9: Rewritten Dictogloss Text (Terrence and Frank)

Screenshot 2019-06-05 at 21.08.59.png

Appendix 10: Visit 3 Error Analysis Tables (Terrence and Frank)

 

Table 1: Errors that Occurred during the Note Taking Part of the Dictogloss Activity

Terrence

Phrase of Sentence with Error

Target Language Reformulations

Possible Cause of Error

Line 5

“_____ bad weather.”

“It was bad weather.”

“The weather was bad.”

Context for writing (note taking while listening)

Line 5-6

“[T]hey plan to stay the night”

“They planned to stay the night.”

Context for writing (note taking while listening)

Developmental Error

Line 8

“was young polar bear”

“It was a young polar bear.”

Line 8

“[Something] move my feet”

“Something moved my feet.”

Context for writing (note taking while listening)

Developmental Error

Line 9:

Original text
“I talk to my guide” Corrected text

“I woked up my guide”

“I talked to my guide.”

“I woke up my guide.”

Context for writing (note taking while listening)

Developmental Error

Line 15:

“So he stock out the head”

“So he stuck out his head.”

Context for writing (note taking while listening)

Developmental Error

Phonological Error (Spanish vs. English pronunciation.)

Line 16:

Original text
“And the polar bear goes away”

Context for writing (note taking while listening)

Developmental Error

Frank

Phrase of Sentence with Error

Target Language Reformulations

Possible Cause of Error

Line 3:

Original text, “Weather bad”

“The weather was bad.”

Context for writing (note taking while listening)

Developmental Error

Line 4:

“Move my feet”

“Something moved my feet.”

Context for writing (note taking while listening)

Developmental Error

Table 2: Errors that Occurred during the Collaborative Dialogue Part of the Dictogloss Activity

Terrence

Phrase of Sentence with Error

Target Language Reformulations

Possible Cause of Error

Line 4:

“They plan…they plan to stay the night.”

“They planned to stay the night.”

Repeat of written errors in spoken context.

Context of Activity (Negotiating more for meaning when sharing notes)

Line 12:

“The weather turns bad.”

“The weather turned bad.”

Repeat of written errors in spoken context.

Simple error that may or may not be due to developmental stage.

Line 12:

“So we plan to stay the night.”

“So we planned to stay the night.”

Repeat of written errors in spoken context.

Simple error that may or may not be due to developmental stage.

Frank

Phrase of Sentence with Error

Target Language Reformulations

Possible Cause of Error

Line 5:

“Was move, uh, my feet.”

“It moved my feet.” “Something moved

my feet.”

“The polar bear moved my feet.”

Repeat of written errors in spoken context.

Simple error that may or may not be due to developmental stage.

Line 12:

“I think…weather was, uh, bad?”

“I think the weather was bad.”

“The weather was bad.”

Repeat of written errors in spoken context.

Simple error that may or may not be due to developmental stage.

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